Biotextiles as Medical Implants

  • No. of pages: 704
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2013
  • Published: October 31, 2013
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781845694395


Textiles play a vital role in the manufacture of various medical devices, including the replacement of diseased, injured or non-functioning organs within the body. Biotextiles as medical implants provides an invaluable single source of information on the main types of textile materials and products used for medical implants.

The first part of the book focuses on polymers, fibers and textile technologies, and these chapters discuss the manufacture, sterilization, properties and types of biotextiles used for medical applications, including nanofibers, resorbable polymers and shaped biotextiles.

The chapters in part two provide a comprehensive discussion of a range of different clinical applications of biotextiles, including surgical sutures, arterial prostheses, stent grafts, percutaneous heart valves and drug delivery systems. This book provides a concise review of the technologies, properties and types of biotextiles used as medical devices. In addition, it addresses the biological dimension of how to design devices for different clinical applications, providing an invaluable reference for biomedical engineers of medical textiles, quality control and risk assessment specialists, as well as managers of regulatory affairs. The subject matter will also be of interest to professionals within the healthcare system including surgeons, nurses, therapists, sourcing and purchasing agents, researchers and students in different disciplines.

Key Features

  • Provides an invaluable single source of information on the main types of textile materials and products used for medical implants
  • Addresses the technologies used and discusses the manufacture, properties and types of biotextiles
  • Examines applications of biotextiles as medical implants, including drug delivery systems and stent grafts and percutaneous heart valves


Manufacturers, designers, and producers of textile implant materials; Professionals within the healthcare industry

Table of Contents

  • Part I: TechnologiesChapter 1: Manufacture, types and properties of biotextiles for medical applications


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Fiber structure

    1.3 Formation of synthetic fibers

    1.4 Processing of short (staple) and continuous (filament) fibers

    1.5 Understanding structure in fibers

    1.6 Fibrous materials used in medicine

    1.7 Key fiber properties

    1.8 Textile assemblies and their characteristics

    1.9 Conclusion

    1.10 Sources of further information and advice

    1.11 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 2: Nanofiber structures for medical biotextiles


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Techniques for producing nanofibers

    2.3 The electrospinning process

    2.4 Using electrospun poly(s-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers as scaffolds for tissue engineering

    2.5 Co-axial bicomponent nanofibers and their production

    2.6 Case study: collagen/PCL bicomponent nanofiber scaffolds for engineering bone tissues

    2.7 In vivo case study: engineering of blood vessels

    2.8 Miscellaneous applications of co-axial nanofiber structures

    2.9 Conclusion

    Chapter 3: Resorbable polymers for medical applications


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Polymer degradation

    3.3 Mechanical properties of existing resorbable polymers

    3.4 Mechano-active tissue engineering

    3.5 Elastomeric properties of fiber-forming copolymers

    3.6 Elastomeric resorbable polymers for vascular tissue engineering

    3.7 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 4: Shaped biotextiles for medical implants


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Vascular grafts: key developments

    4.3 Weaving, knitting and ePTFE technologies for producing tubular structures

    4.4 Improving surface properties: velour construction

    4.5 Multilimbed grafts

    4.6 Heat setting for a more resilient crimped circular configuration

    4.7 Grafts with taper and varying diameter

    4.8 Tubular structures for other devices: ligaments, hernia and prolapsed repair meshes

    4.9 Three-dimensional textile structures

    4.10 Performance requirements of implants in the body

    4.11 Conclusion

    4.12 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 5: Surface modification of biotextiles for medical applications


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Nano-coatings

    5.3 Preparation of textile surfaces

    5.4 Plasma technologies for surface treatment

    5.5 Measuring surface properties of textiles: SEM and XPS

    5.6 Testing antimicrobial coatings

    5.7 Applications of surface treatments in medical textiles

    5.8 Future trends

    5.9 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 6: Sterilization techniques for biotextiles for medical applications


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Bioburden and principles of sterilization

    6.3 Traditional sterilization: advantages and disadvantages

    6.4 Emerging and less traditional sterilization methods

    6.5 Radiochemical sterilization (RCS)

    6.6 Application of RCS technology

    6.7 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 7: Regulation of biotextiles for medical use


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 US regulation of biotextiles

    7.3 European Union regulation of biotextiles

    7.4 Quality standards for biotextiles

    7.5 The role of quality standards in the development of biotextiles

    7.6 Safety issues with ‘me-too’ products with new intended uses

    7.7 Dealing with cutting-edge technology

    7.8 Conclusion

    Chapter 8: Retrieval studies for medical biotextiles


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Standards and animal models for implant retrieval studies

    8.3 Testing retrieved biotextile implants: harvesting, test planning, sample preparation and cleaning

    8.4 Testing retrieved biotextile implants: analytical techniques

    8.5 Specialized tests for specific retrieval studies

    8.6 Precautions for retrieval studies

    8.7 Limitations of retrieval studies

    8.8 Conclusion and future trends

    Part II: Applications

    Chapter 9: Drug delivery systems using biotextiles


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Types of drugs

    9.3 Types of polymers

    9.4 Technologies and fiber structures

    9.5 Types of drug delivery systems (DDS)

    9.6 Future trends

    9.7 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 10: Types and properties of surgical sutures


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Classification of suture materials

    10.3 Essential properties of suture materials

    10.4 Dyes and coatings to improve suture identification and properties

    10.6 Appendix: further information on sutures

    Chapter 11: Materials for absorbable and nonabsorbable surgical sutures


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Natural materials for absorbable sutures

    11.3 Synthetic materials for absorbable sutures

    11.4 Materials for nonabsorbable sutures

    11.5 Future trends

    11.8 Appendix: further information on sutures

    Chapter 12: Surgical knot performance in sutures


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Tensile properties of knotted sutures

    12.3 Knot strength

    12.4 Performance in dynamic tests

    12.5 Knot security

    12.6 Friction in sutures and friction-based hypothesis of knot security

    12.7 The use of lasers to improve knot security

    12.8 The use of tissue adhesive to improve knot security

    12.9 Conclusion

    12.10 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 13: Barbed suture technology


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 The development of barbed sutures

    13.3 Materials for barbed sutures

    13.4 Barbed suture design and manufacture

    13.5 Testing and characterization

    13.6 Properties of barbed sutures

    13.7 Surgical techniques using barbed sutures

    13.8 Applications of barbed sutures

    13.10 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 14: Small-diameter arterial grafts using biotextiles


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Understanding compliance

    14.3 Tests for compliance

    14.4 Testing compliance in practice: a case study

    14.5 Engineering small-diameter vascular grafts by weaving

    14.6 Using elastomeric threads to construct small-diameter vascular grafts

    14.7 Summary

    14.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 15: Vascular prostheses for open surgery


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Arterial pathologies

    15.3 The development of modern vascular surgery

    15.4 Vascular grafts of biological origin

    15.5 Vascular prostheses from synthetic polymers and biopolymers

    15.6 Improving current vascular prostheses

    15.7 Conclusion

    Chapter 16: Biotextiles as percutaneous heart valves


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Heart valve replacement: critical issues

    16.3 Textile valves: manufacturing requirements

    16.4 Textile valves: in vitro performance

    16.5 Textile valves: long-term performance

    16.6 Textile valves: in vivo performance

    16.7 Conclusions and future trends

    Chapter 17: Biotextiles as vena cava filters


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Current filters for embolic protection in the IVC

    17.3 An ´ideal´ IVC filter design

    Chapter 18: Biotextiles for atrial septal defect repair


    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Anatomy and physiology of a normal functioning heart

    18.3 Epidemiology, pathology, incidence and patient population of ASDs

    18.4 Historical methods of ASD repair

    18.5 Current noninvasive treatments, therapies and devices used to repair ASDs

    18.6 Advantages and disadvantages of the current technology

    18.7 Future trends

    18.8 Conclusion

    Chapter 19: Hemostatic wound dressings


    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 The importance of hemostatic textiles

    19.3 Understanding the clotting of blood

    19.4 Influence of foreign surfaces on blood clotting

    19.5 Existing hemostatic materials

    19.6 Future trends

    Chapter 20: Anterior cruciate ligament prostheses using biotextiles


    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Anatomy and structure of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

    20.3 Biomechanics of the ACL

    20.4 Clinical problems associated with the ACL

    20.5 Diagnosis and treatment of ACL ruptures

    20.6 Autograft for ACL reconstruction

    20.7 Allograft for ACL reconstruction

    20.8 Graft healing in ACL reconstructive surgery

    20.9 The use of synthetic materials and prostheses in ACL reconstructive surgery

    20.10 Complications with synthetic ligaments

    20.11 Augmentation devices

    20.12 Tissue engineering and scaffolds

    20.13 Xenografts

    20.14 Conclusion

    Chapter 21: Endovascular prostheses for aortic aneurysms: a new era for vascular surgery


    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 History and advantages of stent grafts

    21.3 Stent graft design and performance

    21.4 Prefenestrated devices for juxtarenal aneurysms

    21.5 Novel approaches to the treatment of juxtarenal and suprarenal aneurysms

    21.6 Conclusion